Showing posts from January, 2015
Whether we use computers, hand held calculators, or backs of envelopes one rule applies: the decision will be made by some person, or group of persons, and will not hinge simply on the best numerical projection of some measure of merit. Like nearly all else in our business, there is art as well as science in this. Indeed—and roughly speaking—the more important the decision the greater is the reliance upon art.
That is what makes ship design/naval architecture so fascinating. Faced with an uncertain future and several finely balanced options, it is possible that the shipowner may take his lead from the marketplace—when 45,000 dwt products tankers are in fashion he will order them, or when Panamax bulk carriers are in fashion he may order these in preference to the ‘handy-size’. Ship ordering statistics suggest that this is the case. The ‘acid test’ comes during depressions when a shipowner’s survival depends upon maintaining a stronger cashflow than his competitors, and for companies i…
Ultimate Strength of Plates The collapse of columns occurs either by elastic buckling if the column is slender (Euler or “ideal” column buckling) or by the commencement of yielding which so seriously decreases the column bending stiffness that collapse by inelastic buckling follows almost immediately.  In the case of plating, the mechanism of collapse is more complex.  Specifically, collapse of plating depends upon type of loading, boundary conditions, aspect ratio, initial distortion, and even residual stresses.  For “slender” plates subject to an increasing compressive uni-axial stress (without lateral load), the plate goes through a number of phases prior to ultimate failure or collapse.  At low levels of stress, the plate remains flat, as the stress remains below the elastic buckling stress and below the yield stress.  The first noticeable response when the stress reaches the elastic buckling stress is that the plate buckles, and as a result the center portion of the plating parti…
There are two (2) degrees of this recollection of Allah SWT. The first degree is that of those saints whose thoughts are altogether absorbed in the contemplation of the majesty of Allah SWT, and have no room in their hearts for anything else at all. This is the lower degree of recollection, for when a man's heart is fixed, and his limbs are so controlled by his heart that they abstain from even lawful actions, he has no need of any device or safeguard against sins. It was to this kind of recollection that the Prophet Muhammad SAW referred when he said, "He who rises in the morning with only Allah SWT in his mind, Allah SWT shall look after him, both in this world and the next."
Some of these recollectors of Allah SWT are so absorbed in the thought of Him that, if people speak to them they do not hear, or walk in front of them they do not see, but stumble as if they collided with a wall. A certain saint relates as follows: "One day I passed by a place where archers we…
1 Mansour & Liu (2008) “The Principles of Naval Architecture Series: Strength of Ships and Ocean Structures” Published by the Society of Naval Architects and Marine Engineers. 2 Hughes & Paik (2010) “Ship Structural Analysis and Design” Published by the Society of Naval Architects and Marine Engineers. 3Rawson & Tupper (2001), “Basic Ship Theory, Combined Volume, Fifth Edition” Published by Butterworth Heinemann. 4 Lamb (2003) “Ship Design and Construction, Volumes 1 and 2” Edited by Thomas Lamb and published by the Society of Naval Architects and Marine Engineers. 5 Tupper (2013) “Introduction to Naval Architecture: Formerly Muckle's Naval Architecture for Marine Engineers” Published by Butterworth Heinemann. 6 Paik & Thayamballi (2007) “Ship-Shaped Offshore Installations. Design, Building and Operation” Published by Cambridge University Press. 7 Okumoto, Takeda, Mano, Okada (2009) “Design of Ship Hull Structures. A Practical Guide for Engineers” Published by Sprin…
In draft survey operation several parties are involved and it is to advantage of each party to join the efforts to increase the accuracy. The parties involved are the buyers, the sellers, the charterers, the terminals and vessel’s staff. Assuming that buyers, sellers and charterers are equally concerned about the correct weight of cargo, also the master (respectively chief officer to whom the responsibility of cargo weight is delegated) shortages and discrepancy may be a problem. In order to avoid this, it is strongly recommended that, once a vessel is nominated, a telex be sent to the master informing that the bill of lading weight will be established by draught survey. This, in order to indicate that his vessel is to meet certain requirements at the time of arrival at load/disport. The weight of cargo will be determined by draft survey, consequently:
1. Vessel shall arrive at the loading (or unloading) port with a trim not exceeding her ballast tank trim correction tables and without l…
The word ocean appears 13 times in 10 verses in the Glorious Quran in Abdullah Yusuf Ali’s translation. 1 Behold! in the creation of the heavens and the earth; in the alternation of the night and the day; in the sailing of the ships through the ocean for the profit of mankind; in the rain which Allah Sends down from the skies, and the life which He gives therewith to an earth that is dead; in the beasts of all kinds that He scatters through the earth; in the change of the winds, and the clouds which they Trail like their slaves between the sky and the earth;- (Here) indeed are Signs for a people that are wise. Al-Baqara, Chapter 2, Verse 164. 2 Say: "If the ocean were ink (wherewith to write out) the words of my Lord, sooner would the ocean be exhausted than would the words of my Lord, even if we added another ocean like it, for its aid." Al-Kahf, Chapter 18, Verse 109. 3 Or (the Unbelievers' state) is like the depths of darkness in a vast deep ocean, overwhelmed with billo…
Tsunamis are long waves generated by submarine earthquakes. Tsunami is Japanese for "harbour wave". They are often called tidal waves; but this is a misnomer, since tsunamis have nothing to do with tides.  Before 2004 the strongest tsunami in known history was produced by the eruption of the Krakatau of the Sunda Island group in 1883. It reached a wave height of 35 m and claimed 36,830 lives. Four tsunamis with heights in excess of 30 m have been documented in the Pacific Ocean since 684 A.D. A strong tsunami in the Atlantic Ocean was observed in 1755 after an earthquake near Lisbon (Portugal).  In the vicinity of the epicentre of an earthquake, tsunamis can result in extreme wave heights. Once they reach the open ocean and travel through deep water tsunamis have extremely small amplitudes but travel fast, in 4000 m water depth at about 700 km/h. (This speed can be estimated by using the wave speed equation given above: We have g = 9.8 m/s, h = 4000 m, so (9.8 x 4000)1/2 = 200 ms-1= …
1 Ship Structures.Ship structural components and nomenclature.
Longitudinal strength: including development of hull girder shear force and bending moment diagrams; wave bending moment; sagging versus hogging conditions; assessment of amidships section strength capability.
Shear strength: including shear stress diagrams for channel and I-section beams; ship section calculation procedures.
Torsional strength: including torque / shear flow relationships; shear stresses in closed cell structures; procedures for multiple cell structures; open celled structures and relevance to ship sections.
Role played by Classification Society rules and regulations.
2 Ship Resistance & Propulsion.Introduction to ship resistance and propulsion with associated definitions. Physical components of the total ship resistance. Dimensional analysis of different physical quantities and scaling laws.
Model - ship extrapolation: practical scaling methods: CT = CF + CR and CT = (1 + k) CF + CW. Systems of coeffi…
Cash Flow = Sales - Cost of goods sold                                - Selling, administrative, and general expenses                                - Advertising                                - Income tax                                + Decrease in inventory (or - increase)                                + Decrease in accounts receivable (or - increase)                                - Decrease in accounts payable (or + increase)                                + Salvage
                                - Windfall tax on salvage.
Tafsir of Surah Waqiah by Ibn Kathir   The Explanation Insha Allah read this thread every day with the ayat you are learning to understand the surah in more depth. We are using Tafsir Ibn Kathir for this.
Ayats 1-3
The Virtues of Surat Al-Waqi`ah

Abu Ishaq reported from `Ikrimah from Ibn `Abbas that Abu Bakr said, "O Allah's Messenger! You are becoming gray'' The Messenger replied,
"(Hud (chapter 11), Al-Waqi`ah (56), Al-Mursalat (77), `Amma Yatasa'alun (78) and Idha Ash-Shamsu Kuwwirat (81) have made me gray.)"
At-Tirmidhi collected this Hadith and said, "Hasan Gharib.''
The Horrors of the Day of Resurrection
Al-Waqi`ah (the occurrence), is one of the names of the Day of Resurrection, because that Day is real and will surely come. Allah the Exalted said in other Ayat,
(Then on that Day shall the Waqi`ah occur.)( 69:15) Allah the Exalted said,
(There is not, for its occurrence, Kadhibah.) means, when He commands the Day of Resurrection to begin,…
أعوذ بالله من الشيطان الرجيم  بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم Ibn Kathir cites a story on the authority of Ibn ‘Asakir from Abu Zabyah that when Sayyidna ‘Abdullah Ibn Mas’ud (RA) was lying on his deathbed, Sayyidna ‘Uthman (RA) paid him a visit and the following conversation ensued. ‘Uthman (RA): “What are you suffering from?”
Ibn Masud (RA): “from my sins.”
‘Uthman (RA): “Do you desire anything?”
Ibn Masud (RA): Yes, Allah’s mercy.”
‘Uthman (RA): “Shall I call a doctor for you?”
Ibn Masud (RA): “It is the doctor who has given me the ailment.”
‘Uthman (RA): “May I send you an allowance from the public treasury?”
Ibn Masud (RA): “I have no need for it.”
‘Uthman (RA): “Accept it, [please]. You are leaving daughters behind you. It will help them.”
Ibn Masud (RA): “You are worried about my daughters that they must not suffer from poverty. I have no such worry, because I have instructed them to recite Surah Al-Waqi’ah every night. I have heard the Messenger of Allah SAW say ‘Whoever recites surah Al-Waqi’…
You might be an entrepreneur if... 1. You’re restless, and no achievement ever seems good enough. When most people reach a goal they think, “I did it! Time to sit back and enjoy it for a while.” An entrepreneur thinks, “Great, what’s next?” Take the late fashion maven Coco Chanel. She started with a simple hat line, expanded into women’s clothing, and eventually moved into jewelry, accessories and perfume. By the time of her death in 1971, Chanel had not only left behind an iconic brand, but a business empire that was bringing in $160 million annually. Entrepreneurs like Chanel don’t stop with one big achievement. They’re always itching to find and take on the next challenge. 2. You’re a control freak. Throughout my career, I’ve had to make a conscious effort to strike a balance between controlling my business and letting the talented people around me take the reins. It turns out that many of my entrepreneur friends struggle with the same challenge. It’s great to have a CEO who cares…
Shear lag and diminished effective width are most important in cases of ; • wide flanges (large b) • short frames (small L/b) • proximity to free ends • proximity to concentrated loads. Finite element programs, when shell or brick elements are used to model the frames, will naturally show the shear lag effects. There have been experiments on hull girder models that have shown not only a variation in deck stresses, but actual stress reversals. This means that even when the average deck stress is compressive, there may be a part of the deck (at center) where the stresses are tensile, with the deck edges in exaggerated compression. (See PNA [Principles of Naval Architecture Vol. I, SNAME], p250). Classification society rules have various approaches to account for effective width. We will consider deck plate buckling in the next ship structures course. In that case we will consider another type of effective width of plating, but one that describes a buckled plate’s reserve
U.S Treasury Department's Office of Foreign Assets Control
(OFAC)U.S Treasury Department's
1500 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW
Washington, DC 20220
Attn Beneficiary;
This email is to notify you about the release of your outstanding
payment which is truly $30.500.000.00 USD. The New Prime Minister (
UK) and TURKISH Prime Minister has scheduled a time frame to settle all
foreign debts which includes Contract/Inheritance/ Gambling/
Lottery(Sponsored by Microsoft and National Lottery) and other
international loans.News had it that over the past,numerous individual
(s) who happen to be impostors (claiming to be individuals, banks and
organizations) are claiming to release numerous sums of fund via
numerous ways.
With the help of the (OFAC)U.S Treasury Department's and with the FBI
we have noticed that people have being asked to pay outrageous amount
of money by these impostors for the transfer of their funds to them.
We want you to stop all communication that has to do with these
fraudsters who have be…
Kalimah Tauhid Anak Kunci Syurga:
BismillahirRahmanirRahim. “Segala puji bagi Allah, kami memuji-Nya dan meminta pertolongan kepada-Nya. Siapa yang ditunjuki Allah tidak ada yang akan menyesatkannya, dan siapa yang disesatkan Allah tidak ada yang dapat menunjukinya. Sesungguhnya sebenar-benar percakapan ialah Kitabullah (Al-Quran). Sebaik-baik petunjuk, sunnah Muhammad SAW. Seburuk-buruk pekara, sesuatu pekara baru yang diada-adakan dalam agama Allah. Setiap pekara baru yang diada-adakan dalam agama adalah Bid’ah. Setiap bid’ah itu pasti menyesatkan dan setiap pekara yang menyesatkan sudah tentu tempat kembalinya ke neraka. Aku mengakui tidak ada Tuhan selain Allah satu-satu-Nya, tidak ada sekutu bagi-Nya dan Muhammad SAW itu sesungguhnya hamba-Nya dan Rasul-Nya.” Amma ba'du. Assalamu’alaikum Warahmatullahi Wabarakatuh dan Salam Sejahtera buat semua pengunjung yang setia di sini. Kalimah tauhid iaitu kalimah ‘Laa Ilaaha Illallah’ kadang-kadang disebut juga dengan istilah Kalimah Ik…